various colors Exaptations include the co-option of feathers, which initially evolved for heat regulation, for display, and later for use in bird flight. Exaptation stephen Jay Gould and, elisabeth Vrba 's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically -loaded term " pre-adaptation and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution. Charles Darwin darwin 1859 ). Blount, Zachary.; Barrick, Jeffrey.; Davidson, Carla.; Lenski, Richard. Jacob (1977) 4 sees much of evolution as "tinkering that is, working with available traits. "Canalization, genetic assimilation and preadaptation: A quantitative genetic model". "Genomic analysis of a key innovation in an experimental Escherichia counselling psychology research papers coli population". By trapping air, primitive wings would have enabled birds to efficiently regulate their temperature, in part, by lifting up their feathers when too warm.
B Understanding exaptations may suggest hypotheses regarding subtleties in the adaptation. Function may not always come before form: developed structures could change or alter the primary functions they were intended for due to some structural or historical cause. Coli long-term evolution experiment, in which aerobic growth on citrate arose in one of twelve populations after 31,000 generations of evolution. Koonin and Krupovic suggested that virus exaptation can reach different depths, from recruitment of a fully functional virus to exploitation of defective, partially degraded viruses, to utilization of individual virus proteins. For example, a trait can evolve because it served one particular function, but subsequently it may come to serve another. Hayden, Eric.; Ferrada, Evandro; Wagner, Andreas. Lt; m/dictionary/preadaptation External links edit). Current Anthropology, 44 (February 87107. The relationship between social and physical pain". Exaptation - A Missing Term in the Science of Form The development of complex structures (i.e., evolution of novelties) occur either by intensification of an existing function or by a switch in functions. Included are comments and a reply.
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